Together, reptiles and amphibians are called “herps.” They rely on the environment around them–the sun, water, or ground–to generate the heat they need to survive. With a continuous supply of warmth and water, the majority of the Earth’s herp species live in the tropics. All are habitat specialists, with unique adaptations for avoiding predators and acquiring food.
What They Eat
Depending on their habitat, tropical herps eat a variety of terrestrial and aquatic insects, animals, and plants. Sunshine, warm temperatures, and an abundance of rainfall contribute to a wealth of available food. Constant access to food allows them to reach a much larger size than species living in cool climates.
Where They Live
From deserts to forests to saltwater coasts, tropical herps live in a variety of habitats. They can be found along river banks, near oceans, on the forest floor, underground, or high in the canopy. Reptile habitats can change significantly from one species to the next. For most amphibians, life starts in water.
What They Do
A warm climate allows tropical herps to spend less time maintaining body temperature and more time eating, breeding, and producing young. To dodge predators, escape searing daytime heat, and conserve water, many herps are nocturnal (active at night). Diurnal herps (those active during the day) protect themselves using color, camouflage, and even poison.
How They’re Doing
Many tropical reptiles and amphibians are currently endangered or threatened. Tropical habitats are dwindling at alarming rates, and global climate change is altering habitats, breeding seasons, and affecting the entire food chain for many species. Because each species has adapted to fill a specialized niche, disappearing habitats seriously threaten the stability of some populations.
Of the 6,000 known species of amphibians in the world, about half may disappear within the next 50 years. Imagine if the world was to lose half of its birds, half of its mammals, or half of its fish……the loss of amphibians is unprecedented. This represents the most extreme loss of species since the dinosaurs.
Why Should I Care?
Ecosystem Health: Amphibians play critical roles in ecosystems, often serving as the base of a food chain.
Agriculture: They perform invertebrate pest control important to agriculture.
Medicine: Some species have been found to produce substances that may provide medical cures for humans.
Indicators: Amphibians are like canaries in a coal mine, warning us of dangers that may threaten us.
Why Are They Disappearing?
Loss of Habitat: As habitats disappear around the world, so, too, do the animals that live in them.
Disease: The most immediate threat to many amphibian species is a fungus that’s moving quickly around the world. The deadly effects of the Chytrid fungus may be increased by the remaining causes.
Climate Change: Even slight changes in temperature and humidity affect these small, cold-blooded creatures.
Pollution and pesticides: Here in Minnesota, certain pesticides have been shown to have an indirect link to deformed frogs. Over-collection for pets and food.